Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Essay Template: Common GRE Essay Topics

The Essay Template: Common GRE Essay TopicsAlthough essays are normally written from a template, some common GRE essay topics include communications and knowledge-based subjects. A huge percentage of an essay's success is down to the topic and how it's presented in the essay. Many students fail to focus their essay on the best subject areas and this results in the essay being less effective.The GRE is a free online test that is given by the Graduate Management Admission Council. There are seven sections to the test; however, all but the last section, the Verbal section, are done in an online format. The final section, the Quantitative section, is done in writing and can be completed at home, although not every test taker uses this option.The essays are graded by the GRE consultants. This grading system can be turned off or on depending on the student's preference. Some students are even allowed to turn the essay grading system off completely.Common GRE essay topics include a business discussion. The material is generally provided in the student's school or college and will be used in the course. When a topic is not provided within a school, it must be sourced elsewhere.The idea behind the business discussion is to make sure the essay topics are well presented in the essay. The topic should include the various skills a student has that makes them different from others who study the same subject as the student, for example, a chemistry or physics major studying a business plan. The main idea behind the business discussion is to highlight these differences and make the topic interesting to the reader.A more personal essay might use a topic to study the humanities, such as philosophy, English literature or religion. This topic is more analytical than the business discussion, but it does show that the student is interested in the other subjects and not just the business. Such topics will always require some research is never taken lightly.Test prep services will hel p students with GRE topics and can help you plan your essay by providing the perfect topics and researching each one for the appropriate GRE level. In addition, they can work with you in preparing your essay to ensure it is effective and unique. They can also help you improve the essay through suggestions for topics, more structure and examples to review.So whether you're just starting out with the GRE or are an experienced student, you can find good GRE essay topics. The strategies mentioned here will help you achieve great success with your GRE essay topics. Make sure to research each topic carefully and use good grammar, proofread the content several times to make sure it is accurate and add your own ideas into the mix to increase the power of the essay.

Thursday, July 16, 2020

The circle of joy

The circle of joy And old story tells that one day, a countryman knocked hard on a monastery door. When the monk tending the gates opened up, he was given a magnificent bunch of grapes. Brother, these are the finest my vineyard has produced. I’ve come to bear them as a gift. Thank you! I will take them to the Abbot immediately, he’ll be delighted with this offering. No! I brought them for you. For whenever I knock on the door, it is you opens it. When I needed help because the crop was destroyed by drought, you gave me a piece of bread and a cup of wine every day.The monk held the grapes and spent the entire morning admiring it. And decided to deliver the gift to the Abbot, who had always encouraged him with words of wisdom.The Abbot was very pleased with the grapes, but he recalled that there was a sick brother in the monastery, and thought:I’ll give him the grapes. Who knows, they may bring some joy to his life.And that is what he did. But the grapes didn’t stay in the sick monk’s room f or long, for he reflected:The cook has looked after me for so long, feeding me only the best meals. I’m sure he will enjoy these.The cook was amazed at the beauty of the grapes. So perfect that no one would appreciate them more than the sexton; many at the monastery considered him a holy man, he would be best qualified to value this marvel of nature.The sexton, in turn, gave the grapes as a gift to the youngest novice, that he might understand that the work of God is in the smallest details of Creation. When the novice received them, he remembered the first time he came to the monastery, and of the person who had opened the gates for him; it was that gesture which allowed him to be among this community of people who knew how to value the wonders of life.And so, just before nightfall, he took the grapes to the monk at the gates. Eat and enjoy them â€" he said. â€" For you spend most of your time alone here, and these grapes will make you very happy.The monk understood that the gift had been truly destined for him, and relished each of the grapes, before falling into a pleasant sleep.Thus the circle was closed; the circle of happiness and joy, which always shines brightly around generous people.Unknown Author Submitted by Elizabeth

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

romanticism Essay - 1310 Words

Romanticism and Rationalism Romanticism began in the mid-18th century and reached its height in the 19th century. The Romantic literature of the nineteenth century holds in its topics the ideals of the time period, concentrating on emotion, nature, and the expression of quot;nothing.quot; The Romantic era was one that focused on the commonality of humankind and, while using emotion and nature; the poets and their works shed light on peoples universal natures. Romanticism as a movement declined in the late 19th century and early 20th century with the growing dominance of Realism in the literature and the rapid advancement of science and technology. However, Romanticism was very impressionative on most individuals during its time.†¦show more content†¦Thoreau felt by doing this society would have a harder time to mold him into what it wanted him to think. Thoreau left a life of luxury for quot;voluntary povertyquot;. Even though he was quot;poorer in his outward richesquot; he was wealthy in his quot;inward richesquot;. A good number of romantic views of Nature suggested using Nature as ones tool to learn. This is evident in William Wordsworths poem quot;The Tables Turned. In the poem quot;The Tables Turnedquot; Wordsworth states to quot;quit your books [for it is] a dull and endless strife[;] enough of Science; close up those barren leaves.quot; Wordsworth believed piece that books were useless to learn from. He believed that we should quot;Let Nature be [our] Teacher [for it]†¦may teach you more of man [and] moral good and evil[, more] than all the sages can.quot; Wordsworth agreed with the previous notion that to understand the divine and oneself, they must first start with understanding Nature. This View of studying Nature is taken one step further by Charles Darwin. Perhaps the most appealing quality of Darwins work was that it accounted for phenomenon in a purely naturalistic manner. It was the most scientific explanation yet, completely remov ing the supernatural explanation, and setting him apart from the theorists before him. The major unsettled scientific question of Darwins Theory was be in regards to natural selection as the mechanism for change, which becameShow MoreRelatedRomanticism : Romanticism And Romanticism1444 Words   |  6 PagesRomanticism was a period time 1750 to 1870 in Europe, Latin America and The United States. Romantic Movement didn’t reach to France until the 1820’s. Romanticism main spirit was against of rule, law and formulas that classicism the different characterized of general in 18th century. Imagination, Subjectivity of approach, freedom, Expression and the idealization of nature will be focused in movement of Romantic Literature. In this period industrial revolution with the social and political norms formRead MoreRomanticism : Romanticism And Romanticism1141 Words   |  5 Pagesmovements. Although Romanticism and Modernism differ in their styles, values, and ideology, t hey were both important periods in literature. Romanticism was a literary movement during the late 18th century until the early 19th century that had an emphasis on the imagination and emotions. The movement moved through every country in Europe, Latin America, and the United States from approximately 1750 to 1870. However, France did not see the movement until the 1820’s. Romanticism was basically a rebellionRead MoreRomanticism Vs. Romanticism : Modernism And Romanticism1050 Words   |  5 Pagesor what does it take to better the society? Well, the Europeans had adapted the Neoclassicism and Romanticism form of art belief, in order to find the answers that they were always looking for. Neoclassicism is the principal of logically viewing life in a mathematics and rational level, especially when it comes to solving worldly issues and it’s expressed through art and literature. However, Romanticism believe in the beauty of art, faith, and rely on intense emotions for judgement. Firstly, the societyRead MoreRomanticis m : The Era Of Romanticism1810 Words   |  8 PagesThrough the late 1700s and early 1800s, the period of Romanticism blossomed. â€Å"Romanticism† very loosely describes the era in which modern culture began to take shape. During the Romantic era, many advancements were made in all aspects of people’s lives and cultures. One aspect in particular has held great value even to this day. That aspect being the expansive amount of literature created during the era. The era of Romanticism had its name for a reason. It can be greatly attributed to the romanticRead MoreRomanticism1649 Words   |  7 PagesRomanticism in the Nineteenth Century The Romantic period followed the era of logical, philosophical, and social movement in the 17th to 18th century. However, as the 19th century began, Romanticism came into the light with a new perspective that intrigued the people. It stressed emphasis on emotions and imagination while also helping to realize the importance of self-expression. The American Romanticism movement illustrated inspiration, bias and predominance of individuals in the nineteenth centuryRead MoreRomanticism Essay833 Words   |  4 PagesRomanticism Soaked in sweat, I finally finished a mile run around the neighborhood. While grasping for air, my neighbor Kayla must have noticed that I took my daily run. She decided to bring me a bottle of water and converse a little while. One of the things we discuss was how I have been up multiple nights reading for all four of my classes that I have been taking this semester. Kayla was very shocked that I decided to enroll in British literature knowing that I strongly dislike the language differenceRead MoreDark Romanticism1392 Words   |  6 Pages4. Define â€Å"Dark Romanticism† as you understand it by discussing two works by different authors. Account for the rise of this kind of writing in America and evaluate its appeal and significance then and now. The Dark Side of Romanticism Romantic literary texts focus on the expression of emotion. Authors during the Romantic period developed and integrated the idea of the individual being the main focus in life. Romantic authors focused on the individual being at the center of their own happiness andRead MoreRomanticism And The Enlightenment1286 Words   |  6 Pagesgrowing, which emphasizes the scientific, practical evidence and rational thinking. Romanticism questioned the rationality of the truth of the road, that understanding the great mystery of life is not enough. These mysteries can be found with emotion, imagination and intuition. Nature is especially considered a self-discovery and spiritual learning classroom, the mysterious place can reveal the human mind. Romanticism emphasizes a life full of deep feelings, spirituality, and freedom of expression,Read MoreRomanticism Essay1493 Words   |  6 PagesRomanticism Romanticism is a movement in the arts that flourished in Europe and America throughout much of the 19th century from the period of the French revolution in 1789. Romantic artists’ glorified nature, idealized the past, and celebrated the divinity of creation. There is a fundamental emphasis on freedom of self expression, sincerity, spontaneity and originality. The movement rebelled against classicism, and artists turned to sources of inspiration for subject matter and artisticRead MorePuritanism And Romanticism1825 Words   |  8 Pages There have been three major influential movements in American history—Puritanism, Rationalism, and Romanticism. Each occurring during generally different time periods, they produced a number of different types of literature reflecting their beliefs at the time. The Puritans, being some of the first settlers in modern day America, relied heavily on beliefs they brought with them from the Church of England. Rather than simply being f ollowers of their prior Church, Puritans believed in the Church as

The Hunters Phantom Chapter 11 Free Essays

string(25) " coloring his dry voice\." Elena hung up the phone. She and Bonnie had discussed everything that was going on, from the mysterious appearance of Celia’s and Meredith’s names to Margaret’s upcoming dance recital. But she hadn’t been able to bring up what she had real y cal ed to talk about. We will write a custom essay sample on The Hunters: Phantom Chapter 11 or any similar topic only for you Order Now She sighed. After a moment, she felt under her mattress and pul ed out her velvet-covered journal. Dear Diary, This afternoon, I talked with Caleb Smallwood on the front lawn of my house. I barely know him, yet I feel this visceral connection with him. I love Bonnie and Meredith more than life itself, but they have no idea what it’s like to lose your parents, and that puts a space between us. I see myself in Caleb. He’s so handsome and seems so carefree. I’m sure most people think his life is perfect. I know what it’s like to pretend to have it together, even when you’re coming apart. It can be the loneliest thing in the world. I hope he has a Bonnie or a Meredith of his own, a friend he can lean on. The strangest thing happened while we were talking. A crow flew straight at us. It was a big crow, one of the biggest I’ve ever seen, with iridescent black feathers that shone in the sun and a huge hooked beak and claws. It might have been the same one that appeared on my windowsill yesterday morning, but I wasn’t sure. Who can tell crows apart? And, of course, both the crows reminded me of Damon, who watched me as a crow before we even met. What’s strange – ridiculous, really – is this dawning feeling of hope I have deep inside me. What if, I keep thinking, what if somehow Damon’s not dead after all? And then the hope collapses, because he is dead, and I need to face that. If I want to stay strong I can’t lie to myself. I can’t make up pretty fairy tales where the noble vampire doesn’t die, where the rules get changed because it’s someone I care about. But that hope comes sneaking up on me again: What if? It would be too cruel to say anything about the crow to Stefan. His grief has changed him. Sometimes, when he’s quiet, I catch a strange look in his leaf green eyes, like there’s someone I don’t know in there. And I know he’s thinking of Damon, thoughts that take him somewhere I can’t follow anymore. I thought I could tell Bonnie about the crow. She cared about Damon, and she wouldn’t laugh at me for wondering whether there were some way he might still, in some form, be alive. Not after she suggested the very same thing earlier today. At the last minute, though, I couldn’t talk to her about it. I know why, and it’s a lousy, selfish, stupid reason: I’m jealous of Bonnie. Because Damon saved her life. Awful, right? Here’s the thing: For a long time, out of millions, there was one human Damon cared about. Only one. And that one person was me. Everyone else could go to hell as far as he was concerned. He could barely remember my friends’ names. But something changed between Damon and Bonnie, maybe when they were alone in the Dark Dimension together, maybe earlier. She’s always had a little crush on him, when he wasn’t being cruel, but then he started to take notice of his little redbird. He watched her. He was tender with her. And when she was in danger, he moved to save her without a second thought as to what it might cost him. So I’m jealous. Because Damon saved Bonnie’s life. I’m a terrible person. But, because I am so terrible, I don’t want to share any more of Damon with Bonnie, not even my thoughts about the crow. I want to keep part of him just for me. Elena reread what she had written, her lips pressed tightly together. She wasn’t proud of her feelings, but she couldn’t deny they existed. She leaned back on her pil ow. It had been a long, exhausting day, and now it was one o’clock in the morning. She’d said good night to Aunt Judith and Robert a couple of hours ago, but she didn’t seem to be able to make it into bed. She’d just puttered around after changing into her nightdress: brushing her hair, rearranging some of her possessions, flipping through a magazine, looking with satisfaction at the fashionable wardrobe she hadn’t had access to in months. Cal ing Bonnie. Bonnie had sounded odd. Distracted, maybe. Or perhaps just tired. It was late, after al . Elena was tired, too, but she didn’t want to go to sleep. She final y admitted it to herself: She was a little afraid to go to sleep. Damon had been so real in her dream the other night. His body had felt firm and solid as she held him; his silky black hair had been soft against her cheek. His smooth voice had sounded sarcastic, seductive, and commanding by turns, just like the living Damon’s. When she had remembered, with a sickening horror, that he was gone, it had been as if he had died al over again. But she couldn’t stay awake forever. She was so tired. Elena switched off the light and closed her eyes. She was sitting on the creaky old bleachers in the school gym. The air smel ed of sweaty athletic shoes and the polish they used on the wooden floor. â€Å"This is where we met,† said Damon, who she now realized was sitting beside her, so close the sleeve of his leather jacket brushed her arm. â€Å"Romantic,† Elena replied, raising one eyebrow and looking around the big empty room, the basketbal hoops hanging at each end. â€Å"I try,† Damon said, a tinge of a laugh coloring his dry voice. You read "The Hunters: Phantom Chapter 11" in category "Essay examples" â€Å"But you chose where we are. It’s your dream.† â€Å"Is it a dream?† Elena asked suddenly, turning to study his face. â€Å"It doesn’t feel like one.† â€Å"Wel ,† he said, â€Å"let me put it this way. We’re not actual y here.† His face was serious and intent as he gazed back at her, but then he flashed one of his sudden, bril iant smiles and his eyes slid away. â€Å"I’m glad we didn’t have gymnasiums like this when I did my studies,† he said casual y, stretching out his legs in front of him. â€Å"It seems so undignified, with the shorts and the rubber bal s.† â€Å"Stefan said that you played sports then, though,† Elena said, distracted despite herself. Damon frowned at Stefan’s name. â€Å"Never mind,† she said hastily. â€Å"We might not have much time. Please, Damon, please, you said you’re not here, but are you anywhere? Are you al right? Even if you’re dead†¦ I mean real y dead, dead for good, are you somewhere?† He looked at her sharply. His mouth twisted a little as he said, â€Å"Does it matter that much to you, princess?† â€Å"Of course it does,† Elena said, shocked. Her eyes were fil ing with tears. His tone was light, but his eyes, so black she couldn’t tel where the iris ended and the pupil began, were watchful. â€Å"Everyone else – al your friends – this town – they’re al okay, though, aren’t they? You have your world back. There are such things as col ateral damages you have to expect if you’re going to get what you want.† Elena could tel from Damon’s expression that what she said next would matter dreadful y. And, in her heart of hearts, hadn’t she admitted to herself the other day that, as much as she loved Damon, things were better now, that everything could be good again with the town saved and her returned to her old life? And that she wanted it that way, even if it meant Damon was dead? That Damon was what he said: collateral damage? â€Å"Oh, Damon,† she said at last, helplessly. â€Å"I just miss you so much.† Damon’s face softened and he reached for her. â€Å"Elena – â€Å" â€Å"Yes?† Elena murmured. â€Å"Elena?† A hand was gently shaking her. â€Å"Elena?† Someone stroked her hair, and Elena nuzzled sleepily into the touch. â€Å"Damon?† she said, stil half dreaming. The hand paused in its stroking and then withdrew. She opened her eyes. â€Å"Just me, I’m afraid,† said Stefan. He was sitting next to her on her bed, his mouth a straight, tight line, his eyes averted. â€Å"Oh, Stefan,† said Elena, sitting up and throwing her arms around him. â€Å"I didn’t mean – â€Å" â€Å"It’s al right,† Stefan said flatly, turning away from her. â€Å"I know what he meant to you.† Elena pul ed him toward her and looked up into his face. â€Å"Stefan. Stefan.† His green eyes had a distant expression. â€Å"I’m sorry,† she said pleadingly. â€Å"You have nothing to apologize for, Elena,† he said. â€Å"Stefan, I was dreaming about Damon,† she confessed. â€Å"You’re right, Damon was important to me, and I†¦ miss him.† A muscle twitched at the side of Stefan’s face, and she stroked his jaw. â€Å"I wil never love anyone more than I love you, Stefan. It would be impossible. Stefan,† she said, feeling like she might cry, â€Å"you’re my true love, you know that.† If only she could reach out and show him with her mind, make him understand what she felt for him. She’d never ful y explored her other Powers, never ful y claimed them, but losing their telepathic connection felt like it might kil her. Stefan’s expression softened. â€Å"Oh, Elena,† he said slowly, and wrapped his arms around her. â€Å"I miss Damon, too.† He buried his face in her hair and his next words were muffled. â€Å"I’ve spent hundreds of years fighting with my only brother, with us hating each other. We killed each other when we were human, and I don’t think either of us ever got over the guilt and the shock, the horror of that moment.† She felt a long shudder go through his body. He sighed, a soft, sad sound. â€Å"And when we final y started to find our way back to being brothers again, it was al because of you.† His forehead stil resting on her shoulder, Stefan took Elena’s hand and held it between both of his, turning it over and stroking it as he thought. â€Å"He died so suddenly. I guess I never expected†¦ I never expected Damon to die before I did. He was always the strong one, the one who truly loved life. I feel†¦Ã¢â‚¬  He smiled a little, just a sad twist of his lips. â€Å"I feel†¦ surprisingly lonely without him.† Elena entwined her fingers with Stefan’s and held his hand tightly. He turned his face toward hers, meeting her eyes, and she pul ed back a little so she could see him more clearly. There was pain in his eyes, and grief, but there was also a hardness she had never seen there before. She kissed him, trying to erase that hard edge. He resisted her for half a second, and then he kissed her back. â€Å"Oh, Elena,† he said thickly, and kissed her again. As the kiss deepened, Elena felt a sweet, satisfying sense of rightness sweep through her. It was always like this: If she felt distanced from Stefan, the touch of their lips could unite them. She felt a wave of love and wonder from him, and held on to it, feeding the emotion back to him, the tenderness between them growing. With her Powers gone, she needed this more than ever. She reached out with her mind and emotions, past the tenderness, past the rock-solid love that was always waiting for her in Stefan’s kiss, and delved deeper into his mind. There was a fierce passion there, and she returned it, their emotions twining together, as their hands held each other harder. Beneath the passion, there was grief, a terrible, endless grief, and farther stil , buried in the depths of Stefan’s emotions, was an aching loneliness, the loneliness of a man who had lived for centuries without companionship. And in that loneliness was the taste of something unfamiliar. Something†¦ unyielding and cold and faintly metal ic, as if she had bitten into foil. There was something Stefan was holding back from her. Elena was sure of it, and she reached deeper into his mind as their kisses intensified. She needed al of him†¦ She started to pul back her hair, to offer him her blood. That always brought them as close as they could possibly be. But before he could accept her offer, there was a sudden knock on the door. Almost immediately it opened and Aunt Judith peeked in. Elena, blinking, found herself alone, her palms stinging from the speed with which Stefan had pul ed away from her. She looked around hastily, but he’d vanished. â€Å"Breakfast is on the table, Elena,† Aunt Judith said cheerful y. â€Å"Uh-huh,† Elena said, distracted, peering at the closet, wondering where Stefan had hidden himself. â€Å"Are you al right, dear?† her aunt said, her forehead creased with concern. Elena had a sudden picture of how she must look: wide-eyed, flushed, and disheveled, sitting in her rumpled bed and looking wildly around the room. It had been a long time since Stefan had needed to use his vampiric speed for anything as mundane as not getting caught in her bedroom! She gave Aunt Judith a reassuring smile. â€Å"Sorry, I’m stil half-asleep. I’l be right down,† she said. â€Å"I’d better hurry. Stefan wil be here to pick me up soon.† As Aunt Judith left the room, Elena final y caught sight of Stefan, waving from the lawn below her open window, and she waved back, laughing, the strange emotions at the bottom of Stefan’s mind put aside for the moment. He gestured that he was going around to the front of the house and that he would see her in a minute. She laughed again and jumped up to get ready for the picnic at Hot Springs. It was nice to be the kind of girl who worried about getting grounded. It felt†¦ pleasurably normal. A few minutes later, as Elena, now dressed in shorts and a light blue T-shirt, her hair pul ed back in a ponytail, headed down the stairs, the doorbel rang. â€Å"That’l be Stefan,† she cal ed as Aunt Judith appeared in the kitchen doorway. Elena grabbed her beach bag and picnic cooler from the bench in the hal . â€Å"Elena!† Aunt Judith scolded. â€Å"You have to eat something before you go!† â€Å"No time,† Elena said, smiling at the familiarity of the argument. â€Å"I’l grab a muffin or something on the way.† She and Aunt Judith had exchanged these words, or similar ones, most mornings of Elena’s years in high school. â€Å"Oh, Elena,† Aunt Judith said, rol ing her eyes. â€Å"Don’t move, young lady. I’l be right back.† Elena opened the door and smiled up into Stefan’s eyes. â€Å"Why, hel o there, stranger,† she said softly. He kissed her, a sweet touch of his lips on hers. Aunt Judith hurried back into the hal way and pressed a granola bar into Elena’s hand. â€Å"There,† she said. â€Å"At least you’l have something in your stomach.† Elena gave her a quick hug. â€Å"Thank you, Aunt Judith,† she said. â€Å"I’l see you later.† â€Å"Have fun, but please don’t forget Margaret’s dance recital tonight,† Aunt Judith said. â€Å"She’s so excited about it.† Aunt Judith waved good-bye from the doorway as Elena and Stefan strol ed toward the car. â€Å"We’re meeting the others at the boardinghouse and caravanning to Hot Springs,† Stefan said. â€Å"Matt and Meredith are both bringing their cars.† â€Å"Oh, good, we won’t be as crowded as we were yesterday. Not that I minded sitting on your lap, but I thought I might squish Celia in the middle,† Elena said. She turned her face up and stretched like a cat in the sunshine. A breeze tossed her ponytail, and she closed her eyes and enjoyed the sensation. â€Å"It’s a gorgeous day for a picnic,† she said. The world was alive with birdsong and with the rustle of trees. A faint tracery of white clouds underscored the bright blue of the sky. â€Å"Would it be jinxing ourselves to say it feels like the kind of day where nothing could go wrong?† she asked. â€Å"Yes, it absolutely would be jinxing ourselves to say that,† Stefan said, straight-faced, unlocking the passenger-side door for her. â€Å"Then I won’t say it,† Elena said. â€Å"I won’t even think it. But I feel good. I haven’t been to Hot Springs for ages.† She grinned with pure pleasure, and Stefan smiled back at her, but Elena was struck once again by that certain something new – something troubling – in his eyes. How to cite The Hunters: Phantom Chapter 11, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

What role should the state play in encouraging economic growth

Introduction Despite the call for minimization of the role of the state in regulating trade and other economic activities by proponents of trade liberalization following the demise of the Cold War in 1980s and 1990s,it is evident that the state has a critical role to play in encouraging economic growth. It is even safe to argue that however much we may get liberalized in terms of trade and otherwise, the state naturally retains a significant role of facilitating economic growth and development let alone encouraging its growth.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What role should the state play in encouraging economic growth? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The purpose of this task is to determine the role that the state should play in encouraging economic growth. In doing so we shall find out if East Asia is indeed a successful model of state-led capitalism, the role that different governments in East Asia has playe d in encouraging economic growth and development in their countries and the lessons that developing countries can learn from East Asian countries. The role of the state in encouraging Economic growth The state in contemporary political life is a central institution whose functionalism in fact determines whether a country is recognized by the international community or not. It is therefore important that we start by finding out what is state. To be sure just like other many sociopolitical concepts, the term state does not have a universally accepted definition. Broadly speaking the state is understood by many scholars as the binding political institution of a national government that upholds a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain territory.[1] Conventionally, the state refers to a major feature of the modern polity or political system known as a country or nation-state in political studies that enjoys the monopoly use of force. The force we are referring to here i s coercive but it is important to note that it is morally acceptable by the majority in the society.[2] It is one of the main sources of power that the state relies up on in making the people do what many would not have otherwise done. The state like any other societal institution has had a long history of evolution. Kirkpatrick, Katsiaficas and Emery argue that the state came into being alongside the city and civilization when tribal arrangement and transfer of property was replaced by organization based on locality in stead of kinship. What role should the state play in encouraging economic growth? Irrespective of the many benefits that accrue from trade liberalization and the resultant reduction of the state in interference with the economic activities of the individual citizens as well as communities, the state has a decisive role to play in encouraging economic growth and development.Advertising Looking for essay on political culture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Trade liberalization to mention but briefly is underpinned by the principle of liberal democracy which holds that individuals are free to develop themselves social-economically as they wish through exchange of goods, services and ideas. Similarly communities are free to manage their development affairs as they wish. This sentiment by far rejects strict interference of the state or any other institution in the economic activities of the individual, organizations and communities. There is however a consensus among economists beginning with Adam Smith that the state (importance of trade liberalization not withstanding) has a role to play in stimulating economic growth and development. John Maynard Keynes himself who is regarded as the father of modern economics stressed the unavoidability of necessary state’s economic intervention because there is no individual who can afford to take risks.[3] According to Keynes as cited in Sharma, one of the main roles of the state is to pump out money into an economy that is hit by depression which certainly no other individual businessman who can do. So that the state has a mandatory role to intervene and pump out money through a variety of incentive packages to enlarge lessening demands in such an economy. Therefore, the state is a critical savior during times of economic depression because unlike individual citizens it has to spend more in order to enlarge demands at a time that is characterized by an unusually low economic activity with an oddly high rate of joblessness.[4]In this case, the state acts as a catalyst to encourage growth or speed up the process of economic growth.[5] Keynes according to Sharma like many other New Rightist neo-liberals believed that the economy is a too complex and important thing to be left alone at the mercy of the corporate class and petty and largely selfish politicians. Sharma unlike socialists calls for a balanced state intervention in the economy. He argues that the intervention of the state must be there as and when necessary to protect the economy as an always watchful regulator of free market economy. He cautions that the state should recognize its proper role in encouraging economic growth, that is, as an observant regulator of the economy and not its strangulator or the agent that squeezes life out of it .[6] Sharma asserts that extreme intervention of the state in the economy is as worse as a lack of proper intervention because both scenarios lead to the dangerous growth of corruption, and inefficiency leading in the long run to an unavoidable economic collapse. He therefore concludes that a modest and well judged interventionist role of the state holds the key to a sustained and inclusive economic growth of a country as evidenced by many countries world .[7]Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on What role should the state play in encouraging economic growth? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Apart from the important role that the state plays during times of economic depression and recession the state has critical roles to play during normal relative economic growth.[8] Mahler argues that governments are looked up on to promote economic growth, and that the states are acceptably able to do this by all means at their at their disposal like catching the attention of foreign as well as domestic investors and thus fostering state industry ,agriculture among other industries.[9] Chakravarti concurs with Mahler by observing that the means to economic development is to found in liberating the productive energies of individuals and organizations which in economic terms implies that private investment both national and foreign must be made possible and promoted.[10] Vane and Showdon observe that there are many strategies that the government can adopt to encourage education and training, capital formation, research and developmen t which is requisite to economic growth and development.[11] Education and training is critical because it provides the needed skilled labour to drive and boost economic growth and development while capital formation provides economic foundation up on which economic growth takes place and research and development in various industries and particularly in technology comes up with new socioeconomic and technological ideas and also improves up on the existing ones in order to make economically viable. To be sure, even where liberal economists and other scholars and experts call for a minimized intervention of the state, the state plays the all important role of creating an enabling environment in which the individuals and organizations can go about their economic activities satisfactorily and productively. The state shoulders the role of maintaining security within the economy by upholding law and order without fear or favour. It also has the responsibility of availing and maintaining socioeconomic infrastructure, that is, transport and communication infrastructure as well as good social amenities. The state also has a duty of ensuring political stability in the country in order to win the confidence of investors both domestic and foreign. This line of argument is anchored on the premise that individuals would like to invest in economies where they are guaranteed of the security of their property and thus return on the same. In the modern welfare capitalist economies the government plays the role of providing economic assistance to those that economy has no ability of protecting.Advertising Looking for essay on political culture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The state ensures that the majority can access good quality social services like education, health care, transport, housing and even communication. This acts to reduce socioeconomic frustrations for the majority which can easily lead to social unrest which is not conducive to economic growth and development. What role has the state played in encouraging economic growth and development in East Asia? The roles played by different Governments in encouraging Economic development in East Asia Even though majority of countries world over have embraced capitalism and its accompanying political values and ideals like trade liberalization, majority of societies in the Eastern Asia have chosen to go the communist way or to adopt a state-led or regulated capitalism. As a result, the state in majority of the East Asian countries has continued to enjoy a strict control of trade, industrialization and business. Ramesh (as cited in Faulks) argue that even though world economic organizations like I MF and World Bank claim that the state should play an auxiliary and restricted facilitating role in support of economic development they under look the fact that in East Asia the state has always played a more direct development role in economic growth.[12] Surprisingly a world development report prepared by the World Bank in 1997 observed that the state was by and large viewed as effective in that it took part in useful partnership with the private sector.[13] The report argues that even though unproductive authoritarian states have been the main cause of economic decline in most Africa countries, many countries in East Asia have realized significant economic growth under authoritarian governments. This report points out that the connection between authoritarianism and economic decline which is self explanatory in Africa has been inexistent in the authoritarian East Asian states fundamentally because the East Asian states have been powerfully committed to speedy economic growth and development, firm administrative competence and institutionalized relations with stakeholders like private companies and their capability to provide other socioeconomic basics viz sound economic management, essential education and health care and infrastructure.[14] China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan are normally given as perfect examples of successful stories of state-led economies. Chia points out that host governments is East Asia promote FDI inflows to supplement domestic savings, to encourage technological transmission to stimulate economic growth and development and to acquire access to global markets for their exports.[15] Theories of developmental state asserts that the success stories of the East Asian countries is attributable to role that the governments of these countries played in encouraging economic growth and development. Gilpin and Gilpin for instance argue that the governments of Taiwan, South Korea and other NIEs designed an arrangement of stimulus that promoted priv ate venture in strategic industries.[16] In addition, these governments through various methods, played critical role in creating an entrepreneurial class, singling out vital economic areas for development and exposed priority sectors to international competition that made them to become efficient. These authors conclude that the state policies promoted development of an industrial and economic organization that would not have otherwise emerged in response to market signals.[17]Â  What lessons can the developing countries borrow from the East Asian developmental states? Lessons for other developing countries in the world Even though scholars differ in their explanations of whether it is unrestricted state intervention in the economic activities or other factors that have encouraged economic growth in East Asia, majority in various fields of study concur that there are numerous lessons that developing countries can learn from the main East Asian success stories like China, Singapore , Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Taiwan.[18] For instance, Mbaku argues that one of the vital development lessons that Africa and by extension other developing countries can learn from the East Asian countries is to put emphasis on education and human capital formation.[19] This argument is anchored on the fact that as argued earlier general education facilitates creation of skilled labour. According to Mbaku, it has been established through research that East Asian countries placed a lot of emphasis on education during their initial stages of emergence as new industrializing economies.[20] Dani Rodrik as cited in Mbaku argues that human capital makes investment more fruitful, enhances the transmission and adoption of sophisticated technology from overseas and facilitates the establishment of meritocratic, competent and able government or administration.[21]Â  The developing countries should also take advantage of the superior training provided by several universities abroad and now a t home in building and maintaining imperative institutions for economic growth and development. This can be ensured by providing attractive salaries and working conditions to the graduates so that they can be willing to return home after completion of their studies abroad. Taking such economic steps will prove handy in curbing brain ordain which is largely unfriendly to meaningful and sustainable economic growth and development. Also the developing countries should learn to establish and maintain peaceful relations between the governments and the industry. Stepanek (as cited in Mbaku) for example argues that in most of the successful East Asian countries large firms and prioritized industries did not act in isolation instead they were part and parcel of a focused and a ‘less-than-transparent public structure’[22]. These cooperative relations should be extended to the interactions between the governments of the developing countries and foreign investors or Multinational Corporations (MNCs). In addition, like the East Asian countries the developing countries should learn to enhance the ability of their domestic markets while at the same time putting in place measures that can encourage Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) which plays a critical role in encouraging economic growth.[23] Finally, like in Taiwan the government should undertake public entrepreneurship which largely entails provision of economic infrastructure which is a prerequisite to economic growth and development[24]. Also it should take part in provision of services as well as goods which if left to the private sector alone can lead oppression of the weak as well as inequitable distribution. An economy that has reliable economic infrastructure facilitates the growth and development of the private entrepreneurship which is the main driver of economic growth and development. Conclusion It is evident that the state plays very significant role in promotion of economic growth and development even in the most liberalized societies. It is even arguable that in the modern society economic growth and development is elusive in the absence of a functional state which apart from creating an enabling environment within its boundaries plays the critical role of providing security from national as well as international threats. As argued by Sharma a well judged state intervention is the key to sustainable economic growth and development. Also as demonstrated by the successful cases of development in East Asia developmental states, states that are fully committed to rapid development can encourage economic growth and development in the developing countries.[25] Bibliography Berger, Mark T. The battle for Asia: from decolonization to globalization .London: Routledge, 2004. Chakravarti, Ashok. Aid, institutions and development: new approaches to growth, governance and poverty. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005. Dobson, Wendy, Chia, Siow Yue, International Development Researc h Centre (Canada), Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Multinationals and East Asian integration. Ontario, Canada: IDRC, 1997. Faulks, Keith. Political sociology: a critical introduction. Edinburgh, Midlothian: Edinburgh University Press, 1999. Gilpin, Robert and Gilpin, Jean M. Global political economy: understanding the international economic order. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2001. Hoffman, John. Citizenship beyond the state New York: SAGE, 2004. Huang, Xiaoming. The political and economic transition in East Asia: strong market, weakening state. New York: Taylor Francis, 2001. Kirkpatrick, George R., Katsiaficas George N, and Emery, Mary Lou. Introduction to critical sociology. New York: Ardent Media, 1987. Kitchen, Martin. The political economy of Germany, 1815-1914.New York: Taylor Francis, 1978. Mahler, Gregory S. New dimensions of Canadian federalism: Canada in a comparative perspective. Madison, New Jersey: Farleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1987. Mbak u, John Mukum. Institutions and development in Africa. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2004. Scalapino, Robert A. The politics of development: perspectives on twentieth-century Asia. London: Harvard University Press, 1989. Sharma, Sourabh Jyoti. Is Socialism the Answer to the present Global Economic Crisis? In Pratiyogita Darpan. New Delhi: Pratiyogita Darpan, 2009. Snowdon, Brian and Vane, Howard R. Modern macroeconomics: its origins, development and current state. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005. World Bank. World development report. New York: World Bank Publications, 1997. Footnotes John Hoffman, Citizenship beyond the state (New York: SAGE, 2004),21. George R. Kirkpatrick, George N. Katsiaficas, and Mary Lou Emery, Introduction to critical sociology (New York: Ardent Media, 1987), 288. Sourabh Jyoti Sharma, Is Socialism the Answer to the present Global Economic Crisis? In Pratiyogita Darpan (New Delhi: Pratiyogita Darpan, 2009),169. Ibid. p.169 Ibid. p.169 Ibid. p.16 9 Ibid. p.169 Martin Kitchen, The political economy of Germany, 1815-1914(New York: Taylor Francis, 1978), 63. Gregory S. Mahler, New dimensions of Canadian federalism: Canada in a comparative perspective (Madison, New Jersey: Farleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1987), 123. Ashok Chakravarti, Aid, institutions and development: new approaches to growth, governance and poverty (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005), 168. Brian Snowdon, Howard R. Vane, Modern macroeconomics: its origins, development and current state (Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2005), 703. Keith Faulks, Political sociology: a critical introduction. (Edinburgh, Midlothian: Edinburgh University Press, 1999),82. World Bank, World development report. (New York: World Bank Publications, 1997), 163. Ibid p.163 Wendy Dobson, Siow Yue Chia, International Development Research Centre (Canada), Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Multinationals and East Asian integration. (Ontario, Canada: IDRC, 1997), 3. Robert Gilp in and Jean M. Gilpin, Global political economy: understanding the international economic order. (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2001),317. Ibid.p.31 Mark T. Berger, The battle for Asia: from decolonization to globalization (London: Routledge, 2004),6. John Mukum Mbaku, Institutions and development in Africa. (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2004),98. Ibid.p.98 Ibid.p.98 Ibid.p.98 Ibid.p.98 Xiaoming Huang, The political and economic transition in East Asia: strong market, weakening state (Ney York: Taylor Francis, 2001), 193. Robert A. Scalapino, The politics of development: perspectives on twentieth-century Asia (London: Harvard University Press, 1989), 95. 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